Main Article Content


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is common in COVID-19 survivors and can be caused by a variety of stressors, including the duration of infection, severity, and location of isolation when infected with COVID-19. Furthermore, public anxiety caused by the rapid increase in the number of cases and deaths caused by COVID-19 plays a role in the occurrence of PTSD. To reduce the risk of mental disorders, psychosocial support is required. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of PTSD in COVID-19 survivors, to describe aspects of psychosocial support for COVID-19 survivors, and to assess the relationship between stressor factors and psychosocial support and the occurrence of PTSD in COVID-19 survivors. This research used an analytical observational research design with a cross sectional approach, involving 149 respondents aged 17-65 years, 52 men and 97 women from the COVID-19 survivor community known as COVID Survivor Indonesia (CSI) in DKI Jakarta. The Medical Outcomes Study–Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) and The Impact Of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaires were distributed via Google Form to collect data. Data was processed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows version 26.0, and results were analyzed using descriptive univariate and bivariate using Chi Square.  There is a significant relationship between stressor factors and the occurrence of PTSD, specifically the duration of infection with COVID-19 (P = 0,026), severity when infected with COVID-19 (P = 0,027), and place of isolation when infected with COVID-19 (P = 0,023). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between psychosocial support and the occurrence of PTSD (p = 0,001).  Management of COVID-19 patients is required to detect stressor factors and provide psychosocial support so that COVID-19 survivors can return physical and psychological health.

Article Details

Author Biographies

Devanti Octavia Ellyamurti, Medical School, Trisakti University, Bekasi, Indonesia

Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Trisakti

Monica Dwi Hartanti, Teaching Staff of the Biology Section of the Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University, Bekasi, Indonesia

Staff Pengajar Bagian Biologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Trisakti

How to Cite
Ellyamurti, D. O., & Hartanti, M. D. (2023). Relationship of Stressors and Psychosocial Support with Occurrence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Covid-19. International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research, 4(5), 1467-1475.


Brog, N. A., Hegy, J. K., Berger, T., & Znoj, H. (2021). An internet-based self-help intervention for people with psychological distress due to COVID-19: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 22(1), 171.
Bruckmann, P., Haselgruber, A., Sölva, K., & Lueger-Schuster, B. (2020). Comparing rates of ICD-11 and DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Austrian children and adolescents in foster care: prevalence, comorbidity and predictors. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1767988.
Byon, H. Do, Sagherian, K., Kim, Y., Lipscomb, J., Crandall, M., & Steege, L. (2022). Nurses’ experience with type II workplace violence and underreporting during the COVID-19 pandemic. Workplace Health & Safety, 70(9), 412–420.
Chamberlain, S. R., Grant, J. E., Trender, W., Hellyer, P., & Hampshire, A. (2021). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in COVID-19 survivors: online population survey. BJPsych Open, 7(2), e47.
Chen, W., Ju, Y., Liu, B., Huang, M., Yang, A., Zhou, Y., Wang, M., Liao, M., Shu, K., Liu, J., & Zhang, Y. (2021). Negative Appraisals of the COVID-19 Social Impact Associated With the Improvement of Depression and Anxiety in Patients After COVID-19 Recovery. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 585537.
Flatt, J. D., Gilsanz, P., Quesenberry, C. P., Albers, K. B., & Whitmer, R. A. (2018). Post‐traumatic stress disorder and risk of dementia among members of a health care delivery system. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 14(1), 28–34.
Gallagher, M. W., Smith, L. J., Richardson, A. L., & Long, L. J. (2021). Examining Associations Between COVID-19 Experiences and Posttraumatic Stress. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 26(8), 752–766.
Gonzales Diaz, D. L. (2021). Trastorno de estrés postraumático a consecuencia del Covid-19: una revisión desde la evidencia.
Ju, N., Yang, X., Ma, X., Wang, B., Fu, L., Hu, Y., Luo, D., Xiao, X., Zheng, W., Xu, H., Fang, Y., Chan, P. S. F., Xu, Z., Chen, P., He, J., Zhu, H., Tang, H., Huang, D., Hong, Z., … Zou, H. (2022). Hospitalization, interpersonal and personal factors of social anxiety among COVID-19 survivors at the six-month follow-up after hospital treatment: the minority stress model. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 13(1), 2019980.
Kobayashi, I., Sledjeski, E. M., & Delahanty, D. L. (2019). Gender and age interact to predict the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following a motor vehicle accident. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 11(3), 328–336.
Konwar, G., Kakati, S., & Sarma, N. (2022). Experiences of nursing professionals involved in the care of COVID-19 patients. Linguistics and Culture Review, 6(S4), 49–58.
Liu, C., Huang, N., Ahmed, F., Shahid, M., Wang, X., & Guo, J. (2021). The reverse buffering effects of social support on the relationships between stresses and mental health: a survey of Chinese adults during the COVID-19 lockdown. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 12(1), 1952777.
Liu, C., Liu, D., Huang, N., Fu, M., Ahmed, J. F., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Shahid, M., & Guo, J. (2021). The Combined Impact of Gender and Age on Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms, Depression, and Insomnia During COVID-19 Outbreak in China. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 620023.
Martin-Lesende, I., & Blasco-López, L. (2022). Emotional and psychological impact of infection and postCOVID-19 in older people: beyond the usual symptoms of long COVID. European Geriatric Medicine, 13(3), 693–694.
Muslu, L., Kolutek, R., & Fidan, G. (2022). Experiences of COVID ‐19 survivors: A qualitative study based on Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. Nursing & Health Sciences, 24(3), 774–784.
Nakamura, Z. M., Nash, R. P., Laughon, S. L., & Rosenstein, D. L. (2021). Neuropsychiatric Complications of COVID-19. Current Psychiatry Reports, 23(5), 25.
Park, H. Y., Jung, J., Park, H. Y., Lee, S. H., Kim, E. S., Kim, H. Bin, & Song, K.-H. (2020). Psychological Consequences of Survivors of COVID-19 Pneumonia 1 Month after Discharge. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 35(47).
Pistarini, C., Fiabane, E., Houdayer, E., Vassallo, C., Manera, M. R., & Alemanno, F. (2021). Cognitive and Emotional Disturbances Due to COVID-19: An Exploratory Study in the Rehabilitation Setting. Frontiers in Neurology, 12, 500.
Rofail, D., McGale, N., Podolanczuk, A. J., Rams, A., Przydzial, K., Sivapalasingam, S., Mastey, V., & Marquis, P. (2022). Patient experience of symptoms and impacts of COVID-19: a qualitative investigation with symptomatic outpatients. BMJ Open, 12(5), e055989.
Romulo, S. G., & Urbano, R. C. (2022). The Stories of Isolation and Discrimination of COVID-19 Sufferers in a Community Quarantine Facility. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 27(1), 92–94.
Sharif Nia, H., Gorgulu, O., Naghavi, N., Robles-Bello, M. A., Sánchez-Teruel, D., Khoshnavay Fomani, F., She, L., Rahmatpour, P., Allen, K.-A., Arslan, G., & Pahlevan Sharif, S. (2021). Spiritual Well-Being, Social Support, and Financial Distress in Determining Depression: The Mediating Role of Impact of Event During COVID-19 Pandemic in Iran. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 754831.
Smith, C. J., Renshaw, P., Yurgelun-Todd, D., & Sheth, C. (2022). Acute and chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients: A qualitative review. Frontiers in Public Health, 10.
Wang, P. R., Oyem, P. C., & Viguera, A. C. (2021). Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity following discharge after COVID-19 hospitalization. General Hospital Psychiatry, 69, 131–132.
Xiao, S., Luo, D., & Xiao, Y. (2020). Survivors of COVID-19 are at high risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. Global Health Research and Policy, 5(1), 29.
Yang, T., Yan, M. Z., Li, X., & Lau, E. H. Y. (2022). Sequelae of COVID-19 among previously hospitalized patients up to 1 year after discharge: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Infection, 50(5), 1067–1109.
Yıldırım, N., Dayılar Candan, H., & Inan, A. H. (2022). Psychological distress in patients with COVID-19 during hospitalization. Clinical Nursing Research, 31(3), 376–384.
Yuan, Y., Liu, Z.-H., Zhao, Y.-J., Zhang, Q., Zhang, L., Cheung, T., Jackson, T., Jiang, G.-Q., & Xiang, Y.-T. (2021). Prevalence of Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms and Its Associations With Quality of Life, Demographic and Clinical Characteristics in COVID-19 Survivors During the Post-COVID-19 Era. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 665507.
Zhong, Y., Zhao, H., Lee, T.-Y., Yu, T., Liu, M. F., & Ji, J. (2022). Experiences of COVID-19 patients in a Fangcang shelter hospital in China during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative descriptive study. BMJ Open, 12(9), e065799.