Main Article Content


Using data collected from 76 employees of a manufacturing company in Manila, Philippines, this study conducted a correlation analysis to determine the relationship between the level of their engagement at work and their personal characteristics, organizational commitment in the workplace, and job satisfaction. A self-administered structured survey questionnaire was use in the survey. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics to determine the mean scores, frequencies, and percentages, and parametric inferential statistics were employed to examine the correlations between variables. The results indicate a high level of employee work engagement and job satisfaction, as well as a moderate level of employee organizational commitment. Employee age, position and monthly salary were significantly correlated with employee work engagement. The level of employee engagement increases with age, position and income. Results also revealed a significant and strong positive correlation between the level of employee engagement and employee happiness at work. Implications for practices are offered.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tugade, G. Y. G., & Arcinas, M. M. (2023). Employees Work Engagement: Correlations with Employee Personal Characteristics, Organizational Commitment and Workplace Happiness. International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research, 4(1), 136-155.


Albdour, A. A., & Altarawneh, I. I. (2014). Employee en-gagement and organizational commitment:
Evidence from Jordan. International journal of business, 19(2), 192–212.
Ananth, A. (2009). Impact of demographic factors on em-ployee engagement: a study with reference to vasan publications private limited, chennai. University Library of Munich, Germany.
Avery, D. R., McKay, P. F., & Wilson, D. C. (2007). Engag-ing the aging workforce: The relationship between perceived age similarity, satisfaction with co-workers, and employee engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6), 1542.
Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Taris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work & Stress, 22(3), 187–200.
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Job demands–resources theory. Well-being: A complete reference guide, 1-28.
Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Positive organi-zational behavior: Engaged employees in flourish-ing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behav-ior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupa-tional and Organizational Psychology and Behav-ior, 29(2), 147-154.
Banihani, M., Lewis, P., & Syed, J. (2013). Is work en-gagement gendered? Gender in Management: An International Journal, 28(7), 400-423.
Buckley, P., Viechnicki, P., & Barua, A. (2016). The 2016 Deloitte Millennial Survey: Winning over the next generation of leaders. Retrieved from
Davis, B. J. (2014). University Commitment: Test of a Three-Component Model (Doctoral dissertation,
Minnesota State University, Mankato).
Field, L. K., & Buitendach, J. H. (2011). Happiness, work engagement and organizational commitment of support staff at a tertiary education institution in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(1), 01-10.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Losada, M. F. (2005). Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing. American Psychologist, 60(7), 678-686.
Goel, D., & Singh, M. (2015). Personality and employee happiness: A study of working women in Del-hi/NCR. Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing, 6(2). Retrieved from
Huang, H. (2016). Workplace happiness: Organizational role and the reliability of self-reporting (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park).
James, J. B., McKechnie, S., & Swanberg, J. (2011). Pre-dicting employee engagement in an age‐diverse retail workforce. Journal of Organizational Behav-ior, 32(2), 173-196.
Johnson, R. E., Chang, C. H., & Yang, L. Q. (2010). Com-mitment and motivation at work: The relevance of employee identity and regulatory focus. Academy of management review, 35(2), 226-245.
Kaur, S. (2017). Antecedents and Consequences of Em-ployee Engagement: A Literature Review. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(3), 7–32.
Koyuncu, M., Burke, R. J., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2006). Work engagement among women managers and profes-sionals in a Turkish bank: Potential antecedents and consequences. Equal Opportunities Interna-tional, 25(4), 299–310.
Ledford, G. (1999). Comment: Happiness and Productivi-ty Revisited. Journal of Organizational Behav-ior,20(1), 25–30. Retrieved from
Lee, S., & Olshfski, D. (2002). Employee Commitment and Firefighters: It's My Job. Public Administration Re-view, 62, 108-114.
Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organiza-tional Psychology, 1(1), 3-30.
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (2004). TCM employee com-mitment survey academic users guide 2004.
London, Ontario, Canada: The University of Western On-tario, Department of Psychology. Retrieved from
Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: Toward a general model. Human re-source management review, 11(3), 299–326.
Office of Research, Planning & Effectiveness (2012). Em-ployee Engagement Survey. Northwestern Michi-gan College. Retrieved from
Ogbonnaya, C., Daniels, K., & Nielsen, K. (2017). Does contingent pay encourage positive employee atti-tudes and intensify work? Human Resource Man-agement Journal, 27(1), 94–112.
Oza, H. S. (2015). Does all dimensions of organizational commitment affect job satisfaction and job per-formance? (a case study of higher educational or-ganizations). Clear international journal of re-search in commerce & management, 6(9), 21–24. Retrieved from
Prathiba, S. (2016). A Study on the Impact of Employee Empowerment and Employee Engagement on Or-ganizational Commitment. SIES Journal Of Man-agement, 12(2), 45–54.
Peters, R. (2015). Facing crucial career choices: intellec-tual challenge, job security, and opportunity for advancement contribute to employee happiness, but the ultimate prize may be a satisfactory salary. Pharmaceutical Technology Europe, (12). 18. Re-trieved from
Rego, A., & e Cunha, M. P. (2008). Authentizotic climates and employee happiness: Pathways to individual performance? Journal of Business Research, 61(7), 739–752.
Reynolds, P. D. (1986). Organizational culture as related to industry, position and performance: a prelimi-nary report [1]. Journal of Management Studies, 23(3), 333–345.
Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job per-formance. Academy of management journal, 53(3), 617–635.
Rotich, R., Cheruiyot, T., & Korir, M. (2016). Effects of Demographics on the Relationship between Opti-mism and Work Engagement among Employees of State Agencies in Kenya. Journal of Resources De-velopment and Management. 18, pp. 32–42.
Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psy-chology, 21(7), 600–619. Retrieved from
Scott, D., & McMullen, T. (2010). The Impact of Rewards Programs on Employee Engagement.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi‐sample study. Journal of Or-ganizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psy-chology and Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bak-ker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92.
Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., & Van Rhenen, W. (2008). Workaholism, burnout, and work engagement: Three of a kind or three different kinds of employ-ee well-being? Applied Psychology, 57(2), 173-203.
Silvestro, R. (2002). Dispelling the modern myth: Em-ployee satisfaction and loyalty drive service prof-itability. International Journal of Operations & Pro-duction Management, 22(1), 30-49.
Van De Voorde, K., Paauwe, J., & Van Veldhoven, M. (2012). Employee well-being and the HRM–organizational performance relationship: a review of quantitative studies. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(4), 391-407.
Vorina, A., Simonič, M., & Vlasova, M. (2017). An Analysis of the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Engagement. Economic Themes, 55(2), 243-262.
Wiley, J. W. (2014). Using Employee Opinions about Organizational Performance to Enhance Employee Engagement Surveys: Model Building And Valida-tion. People & Strategy, 36(4), 38-49.
Williams, P., Kern, M. L., & Waters, L. (2017). The Role and Reprocessing of Attitudes in Fostering Em-ployee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 28.
World Health Organization. (2010). Sex. Retrieved from

Wright, T. A., Cropanzano, R., & Bonett, D. G. (2007). The moderating role of positive employee well-being on the relation between job satisfaction and job performance. Journal of occupational health psy-chology, 12(2), 93.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schau-feli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships be-tween job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational behavior, 74(3), 235-244. Retrieved from
Xu, J., & Cooper Thomas, H. (2011). How can leaders achieve high employee engagement? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(4), 399-416.
Zimmer, S. (2017). Organizational Commitment. Organi-zational Commitment -- Research Starters Busi-ness, 1-5. Retrieved from